The forgotten Light of day, waiting for me outside of this cave
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Alexander the Great is one of the Dhu-L Qarnayn of the Quran

Atualizado: 4 de nov. de 2021

Alexander the Great in Quran and Middle Eastern Myths

8 de dez. de 2020

Kings and Generals YouTube Channel

The video was made by Yağız Bozan and Murat Can Yağbasan, while the script was researched and written by David Munćan. This video was narrated by Officially Devin (

Production Music courtesy of EpidemicSound for the Kings and Generals YouTube Channel.

The Book of Daniel, Part 2

CHAPTER VII. Daniel's Night Visions and Their Meaning

The night vision of the three beasts* (verses 1-6).

(*} In Revelation iv. and v. we read in the A. V. of " beasts " but the words there should be translated "living ones"; they are the cherubin of Ezekiel's vision.

"The first was like a lion, and had eagles wings: I beheld till the wings thereof were plucked, and it was lifted up from the earth, and made stand upon the feet as a man, and a man's heart was given to it."

As gold is the most precious metal, so the lion IS the king among the beasts of the forest. The gold in the dream image and the first beast represent the Babylonian empire. In the beginning it was a lion with wings, but they were plucked out; it lost its strength and though it had a man's heart, it was a beast still. This may also have connection with Nebuchadnezzar's insanity experience.

{Even before this Nebuchadnezzar had been described as a lion. "The lion is come up from his thicket, and the destroyer of the Gentiles is on his way" (Jerem. iv. 7). Elsewhere he is spoken of as an eagle.}

"And behold another beast, a second, like to a bear, and it raised up itself on one side, and it had three ribs in the mouth of it between the teeth of it: and they said unto it, Arise, devour much flesh."

The bear stands for the Medo-Persian empire, the empire seen as of silver, the chest and arms.

In the eighth chapter this Medo-Persian empire is represented by the ram with two horns.

"After this I beheld, and lo another, like a leopard, which had upon the back of it four wings of a fowl; the beast had also four heads; and dominion was given to it."

The leopard, with four wings and four heads, is the picture of the Graeco-Macedonian empire, corresponding to the thighs of brass in the image of Nebuchadnezzar. The four wings denote its swiftness, the four heads the partition of this empire into the kingdoms of Syria, Egypt, Macedonia and Asia Minor. It is seen in the next chapter as the rough he-goat with a notable horn (Alexander the Great) and the little horn (Antiochus Epiphanes). The fourth beast was not seen in the first vision. Before we turn to the second night vision of the Prophet we call attention to the fact that in the selection of beasts to represent these world powers who domineer the times of the Gentiles, God tells us that their moral character is beastly. The lion devours, the bear crushes, the leopard springs upon its prey. The next, the fourth and last world empire is so beastly that no beast on earth is found to describe its true character. The great nations of Christendom, the nations which will be included in the future revival of the Roman empire in its ten kingdom aspect, testify unconsciously to their devouring, beastly, ferocious nature. The emblem of not one of these nations is the dove or any other harmless creature. But you find the lion, the bear, the unicorn, the eagle and sometimes a monstrosity, an eagle with two heads. Their standing armies, their ever increasing navies both on the sea and now even of the air, tell us beforehand that some coming day in the near future, the dogs of war will be let loose and the beasts will do their most dreadful work.

Gaebelein, Arno Clemens. The Prophet Daniel: A Key to the Visions and Prophecies of the Book of Daniel. Kindle Edition.

Alexander the Great's history

Epic History TV YouTube Channel

Alexander the Great's history in full four-part Epic History TV's documentary in 4 videos. Follow the incredible story of the Macedonian king as he embarks on the total conquest of the ancient world's greatest superpower, the Persian Empire. With dramatic victories at Granicus, Issus and Gaugamela, Alexander defeats Darius III and claims the throne of Persia. But his campaign to subdue the empire's eastern provinces and reach the edge of the known world will take him to modern Afghanistan, Pakistan and the frontier of India, where he meets Indian king Porus in battle at the Hydaspes. This is the complete overview of Alexander's achievements, a period of immense drama and 10-year historical significance, as the young Macedonian king's breathtaking achievements ushered in a new era in the history of the Eastern Europe and the East - the Hellenistic age.

Part I

Part II

Part III

Part IV

Top 14 Decisive Ancient Battles in History

War has been fought for many reasons throughout history. Blood has been spilled, kingdoms destroyed, and people slaughtered. Some battles played a significant role in history, some created legends which have been passed down through the generations, and some of the efficient military tactics that originated on the ancient battlefields are still followed today. Ancient military commanders like Alexander the Great and Hannibal proved with their brilliant strategies that nothing was impossible on the battlefield.

14. Battle of Plataea (479 BC) 13. Battle of Thermopylae (480 BC) 12. Battle of Red Cliffs (208 AD) 11. Battle of the Hydaspes (326 BC) 10. Battle of Changping (262 BC–260 BC) 9. Battle of Chalons (451 AD) 8. Battle of Kadesh (1274 BC) 7. The Siege of Syracuse (214 BC–212 BC) 6. Battle of the Metaurus (207 BC) 5. Third Servile War (73 BC–71 BC) 4. Battle of Gaugamela (331 BC) 3. Battle of Salamis (480 BC) 2. Battle of Carrhae (53 BC) 1. Battle of Gaixia (202 BC)

4. Battle of Gaugamela (331 BC)

Battle of Gaugamela (331 BC)
Battle of Gaugamela (331 BC)

Battle Between: Hellenic League and Achaemenid Empire

Hellenic Leaders: Alexander the Great, Hephaestion, Craterus, Parmenion, Ptolemy, Perdiccas, Antigonus, Cleitus, Nearchus, Seleucus, Ariston, Simmias of Macedon

Achaemenid Leaders: Darius III, Bessus, Mazaeus, Orontes II, Atropates

Date: October 1, 331 BC

Victory: Greek

Location: Tel Gomel near Mosul

Hellenic Army: 47,000

Achaemenid Army: 34,000–100,000

The decisive battle between Alexander the Great and the Persian Achaemenid Empire took place on October 1, 331 BC. Despite his small military force (compared to the Achaemenid Empire), Alexander’s tactics worked effectively. The two great armies met near Gaugamela (the present-day city of Mosul in Iraq). Alexander’s ingenious tactics worked so effectively that the battle led to the fall of the Achaemenid Empire.

Alexander, movie; 2004.

Battle of Gaugamela scene

Consulting the gods

A sacrifice to guarantee the favor of the gods. The evil way of the gentiles.

Foreseeing the result of the battle. The evil way of the gentiles.

Trying to change the future’s destiny, the destiny of the battle. The eternal curse of evil magic.

Alexander's speech

  1. Inspiring his men’s loyalty and bravery in combat.

  2. Calling for their ancestor's memory to unite all of them to their same origin in life and identity.

  3. Demoralizing the honor of their enemy’s leadership.

  4. Inspiring the soldier’s hatred against their common enemy.

  5. Justifying the moral right to eliminate all their enemies.

  6. Calling the Hellenic Greeks to the memory of the great burden of the enemy’s tyranny.

  7. Preparing emotionally all of his men for the worst: death.

  8. Remembering them of the greatest honor of a soldier’s life: To die for his master’s great cause:

“Conquer your fear, and I promise you, you will conquer death!”

“And someday I vow to you…
your sons and your grandsons
will look into your eyes.
And when they ask why you
fought so bravely at Gaugamela...
you will answer…
with all the strength
of your great, great hearts:
"I was here this day at Gaugamela..."
for the freedom...
and glory...
...of Greece!*

The decisive battle against the Persians begins;

The greatest military achievement of Alexander's life

The greatest military innovation of that time: the phalanx formation warfare.

The greatest King-general and conqueror of that time: Alexander of Macedon;

Son of Philip, the one eyed, the macedonian king assassinated by their greatest enemy;

their enemy in this battle.

The way of thinking of the ancient warrior

We don’t rely on technology primarily,

for it takes away the warrior’s honor

and steals the victory in combat, for the eyes of our gods.

And also takes away the king’s divine right to rule and conquer,

giving it to lesser people: intellectuals: engineers, technicians.

For they hold no royal bloodline and no moral authority

to rule and to be trusted for their subjects or feared for their enemies.

The Battle goes on

The brotherhood and perfect alignment of the soldier’s friendship and character that always wins a battle.

The great King-general knows exactly how his enemy thinks and how to destroy them:

By killing their king. That’s all he really needs to gain his empire.

The hardest decision of the battle: to turn back and save his men or push further risking to lose all to guarantee his conquest at once.

The King-general chooses wisely.

After the battle: The unmedicated pain of the ancient soldier

Even in the face of such pain, blood and death,

Alexander’s men maintain their loyalty and trust in his leadership.

For no politician or mercenary ruler has such power of inspiring his subject's trust and loyalty on our days.

The final battle outcome: Victory!

Alexander has achieved his greatest glory in his life of King-general:

The conquest of the Persian empire.

The greatest empire the world had yet known was destroyed.
And Alexander at 25 was now king of all.

Crucification: a common military practice at that time

Crucification at that time, was a common way of giving an example to the conquered people of the power of their conquerors by exposing publicly the rebels against their rule nailed to a high wooden cross until they finally die.

A very common practice of Alexander’s army at that time. Not mentioned in the movie.

The crown of kings, great and small, always fall

The Fall Of Alexander

The great hellenic King loses his best friend

The man who was like himself.

And that way he loves his best friend:

As he loves himself.

The great king talks to himself about their dreams together with his best friend.

But now he is dead.

Alexander turned mad by grief

The great King begins to defy the gods.

For they have betrayed him.

He begins to distrust his own destiny and all those who participated in it.

Starting with the closest ones.

The King tries to forget his grief with vice and abuse.

He begins to lose himself. Begins to lose reason.

“Pale Death beats equally at the poor man's gate and at the palaces of kings.”

- Horace


He had achieved too much and because of his great pride, the son of Apollo was cursed by his father-god with disease.

Now the great King with all his might finds himself helpless before his god and his destiny.

In his royal bed,

The great dying king sees his whole life passing before his eyes.

The greatest good moments on the worst moment of any king’s life.

“On the 10th of June,
a month short of his 33rd year...
Alexander's great heart
finally gave out.
And as he vowed,
he joined Hephaistion.
But in his short life,
he achieved, without doubt...
the mythic glory
of his ancestor Achilles and more.

The Legacy Of Megas Alexandros

After Alexander’s death: the empire divides

After the great king’s death, his empire divides.

Good friends in life become the worst traitors in his death, completely destroying their great king’s bloodline.

The old friend, admirer. The keeper of his King’s body speaks

Ptolemy bust at the Louvre

Ptolemy I Soter

(Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Σωτήρ, Ptolemaîos Sōtḗr "Ptolemy the Savior"; c. 367 BC – January 282 BC), also known as Ptolemy Lagides, was a Greek general, historian and companion of Alexander the Great of the Kingdom of Macedon in northern Greece who became ruler of Egypt, part of Alexander's former empire. Ptolemy was pharaoh of Ptolemaic Egypt from 305/304 BC to his death. He was the founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty which ruled Egypt until the death of Cleopatra in 30 BC, turning the country into a Hellenistic kingdom and Alexandria into a center of Greek culture.

Now I am the keeper of his body...
embalmed here in the Egyptian ways.
I followed him as Pharaoh,
and have now ruled 40 years.

I have two sons,
each jealous of the other's power.
But they will grow to make
fine fathers and husbands.
And I trust they'll be just in their affairs.
But they have never seen...
the great cavalry charge of Gaugamela...
or the mountains of the Hindu Kush...
when we crossed the 100,000 men army
into India.

He was a god, Cadmos...
or as close as anything
I've ever known.
"Tyrant!" they yell so easily. I laugh.
No tyrant ever gave back so much.
What do they know of the world,
these schoolboys?
It takes strong men to rule.

Alexander was more, he was a Prometheus,
a friend to man. He changed the world.
Before him, there were tribes...
and after him, all was possible.
There was suddenly a sense the world
could be ruled by one king...
and be better for all.

Eighteen great Alexandrias he built
across this world.
It was an empire, not of land
and gold, but of the mind.
It was a Hellenic civilization...
open to all.

But the truth is never simple...
and yet it is.
The truth is, we did kill him.
By silence, we consented.
Because we couldn't go on.

What, by Ares, did we look forward to
but to be discarded in the end, like Cleitus?
After all this time, to give away our wealth
to Asian sycophants we despised?
Mixing the races, harmony?

Oh, he talked of these things...
but wasn't it really about Alexander
and another population ready to obey him?

I never believed in his dream.
None of us did.
That's the truth of his life.

The dreamers exhaust us.
They must die before they kill us
with their blasted dreams.

Oh, just throw all that away, Cadmos.
It's an old fool's rubbish.

You shall write, "He died of fever
and a weakened condition.

Oh, he could have stayed home in
Macedonia, married, raised a family.
He'd have died a celebrated man.
But this was not Alexander.

All his life,
he fought to free himself from fear.
And by this, and this alone,
he was made free.
The freest man I've ever known.

His tragedy was one
of increasing loneliness...
and impatience with those
who could not understand.

And if his desire...
to reconcile Greek and barbarian
ended in failure...

What failure!
His failure towered
over other men's successes.

I've lived...
I've lived long life, Cadmos...

but the glory
and the memory of man...
will always belong to the ones
who follow their great visions.

And the greatest of these
is the one they now call...

Megas Alexandros.
The greatest of them all.

The old good friend reflection about his destiny with his great King now dead

The old good friend’s reflection gives us a perfect example of his way of thinking.

The gentiles point of view:

“What we do now echoes in eternity.”

- Marcus Aurelius, Meditations

The world will remember them.

But they will receive no mercy before God on the judgement for their sins.

For they have lived their lives with such pride and achieved all they wished of their proud and remembered lives.

And the punishment for pride, the greatest of all sins before God, is none but only one: the greatest punishment for man.

Man, like empires; Rise and Fall, rise and fall

So you who are trying to be wiser, always try to remember and always keep that in mind:

In this world, we are nothing.

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